EDS 113: Reflection Log #1 Informal Assessment


When are informal assessments useful (versus formal assessments?) How valuable are informal assessments? Can informal assessments be good replacements for formal assessments?

Informal assessments can be very useful in order to adjust on the needs of the learners since informal assessment are based on daily instructions. It is the way teachers can collect information on how students learn inside the classroom. “Informal” is used here to indicate techniques that can easily be incorporated into classroom routines and learning activities. Informal assessment techniques can be used at anytime without interfering with instructional time. Their results are indicative of the student’s performance on the skill or subject of interest.

The results or the information that we can gather in informal assessment can be use as bases for developing or adjusting our daily instructions based on the learning and teaching needs of both students and teachers. Though informal assessment is useful, it can only be used as supplement to fill in the gaps of formal assessments since formal assessments have different areas to assess, it aims to measure over all achievement and compared it with the rest of the groups to test if the design of instructions is suitable to the target group while informal assessment is learner centered, the teacher should focused on the strength and weaknesses of a learner as a learner. Informal assessments can be closely related to student’s goals and needs.

Is reflective teaching a necessary skill for informal assessment to effectively facilitate teaching- learning? (what does it mean to reflect about teaching?)


“Refelctive teaching means looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking about why you do it and thinking about if it works- it is a process of self observation and self-evaluation. By collecting information about what goes in our classroom and by analyzing and evaluating this information, we identify and explore our own practices and underlying beliefs. This may then lead to changes and improvements in our teaching. (http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/reflective-teaching-exploring-our-own-classroom-practice)

‘Reflective teaching conceptualises teaching as a complex and highly skilled activity, which, above all, requires classroom teachers to exercise judgement in deciding how to act.  High-quality teaching, and thus pupil learning, is dependent on the existence of such professional expertise. (http://reflectiveteaching.co.uk/what-is-reflective-teaching)


In any areas of work, it is necessary to reflect in order to think if all the details are completed and if these details will fulfill necessary requirements to achieve the goal of teaching and learning. Reflecting on how we teach means assessing ourselves if the goals we set are met. It is also a way which we can assess our knowledge, skills and attitude though as a teacher we must exercise constructive reflection. Constructive reflection in teaching can help teachers to practice constructive approaches including significant changes and development in classroom teaching practice.

Also, through reflective teaching we can answer questions how are we doing and what do we work on now? It is very necessary for teachers as facilitator to be aware not only on the development of their students but also on themselves as well because as guidance we must ensure that learning and development will not only happen to our students but to us as teachers in order for us to achieve mastery and professional development.






EDS 113: Glossary of Terms



“Assessment performances are day-to-day activities that can also be authentic and engaging demonstrations of
students’ abilities to grapple with the central challenges of a discipline in real life contexts”

“any method used to better understand the current knowledge that a student possesses”

process of observing a sample of a student’s behavior and drawing inferences about the student’s knowledge and abilities

Criterion Referenced Test

  • A test that provides for translating test scores into a statementabout the behavior to be expected of a person with that score or their relationship to a specified subject matter. The major reason for using a norm-referenced test is to cltest3assify students
  • It measures how well a student performs against an objective or criterion rather than another student.
  • It measures skills and concept

 Norm Referenced test

  • A test that compares an examinee’s performance to that of other examinees. The goal is to rank the set of examinees so that decision about their opportunity for success can be made


  • Reliability means repeatability and consistency
  • The extent to which results are consistent over time and an accurate representation of the total population under study is referred to as reliability and if the results of a study can be reproduced under a similar methodology, then the research instrument is considered to be reliable. (Joppe , 2000, p. 1)
  • Determines how consistently a measurement of skills or knowledge yields similar results under varying conditions. If a measurement has high reliability, it yields consistent results.


  • Refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure
  • The extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure. It is vital for a test to be valid in order for the results to be accurately applied and interpreted

Summative Assessment

  • Given periodically to determine at a particular point in time what students know and don’t know. It is a means to gauge, at a particular point in time, student learning relative to content standards.

Formative Assessment

  • Formative assessment provides information needed to adjust teaching and learning while they are happening.
  • It informs both teachers and students about students understanding at a point when timely adjustments can be made. Those adjustments help to ensure students achievement targeted standards based learning goals within a set time frame

Formal Assessment

  • A type of assessment that have data which support the conclusions made from the test, usually refer as standardize measure.
  • Consist primarily of standardized tests or performance reviews that have been validated and tested using samples of the intended test groups.

Informal Assessment

  • Assessments that result from teachers’ spontaneous day-to-day observations of how students behave and perform in class.

Traditional Assessment

  • An assessment tool which commonly uses multiple choices where students are being asked to choose one answer

Alternative Assessment 

  • Alternative assessment uses activities that reveal what students can do with language, emphasizing their strengths instead of their weaknesses.

Test Blueprint

  • also known as test specifications identify the objectives and skills which are to be tested and the relative weight given to each.

Item Development

  • the term is used as the shorthand for questions on the test.

Item Format

  • The format of the item necessarily proceeds from the test blueprint. The blueprint indicates the kinds of skills and the balance of test content to be measured. The selection of item types and test format should be based on the kinds of skills to be measured and not on some personal like or dislike for a particular item format

Multiple-Choice Item

  • This is the most common objective-type item. The multiple-choice item is a test question which has a number of alternative choices from which the examinee is to select the correct answer. It is generally recommended that one use 4 or 5 choices per question, whenever possible. Using fewer alternatives often results in items with inferior characteristics. The item choices are typically identified on the test copy by the letters A through E.

Stem- This is the part of the item in which the problem is stated for the examinee. It can be a question, a set of directions or a statement with an embedded blank.

 Options/Alternatives- These are the choices given for the item.

 Key- This is the correct choice for the item.

 Distractors- These are the incorrect choices for the item





(Kulieke, Bakker, Collins, Fennimore, Fine, Herman, Jones, Raack, & Tinzmann, 1990, p.2).

Dietel, Herman, and Knuth (1991) define assessment as

Bond, Linda A. (1996). Norm- and criterion-referenced testing. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 5(2). Retrieved January 14, 2013 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=5&n=2






Garrison, Catherine et.al, Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom





Dikli, Semire, Assessment at a Distance: Traditional vs. Alternative Assessments http://www.tojet.net/articles/v2i3/232.pdf



EDS 113: Current Personal Perspective on Assessment


What does assessment mean to you?

Assessment is a tool to monitor and evaluate the level of learning and/or comprehension of the students. Assessment outcome is used as basis of the learning and teaching plan for the students.

Based on Linn and Groundland, Measurement and Assessment “Teaching is the purpose of teaching that typically comes at the end of a course or unit of instruction is to determine the extent to which the instructional goals have been achieved and for grading or certification of student achievement.”


What are your views about the role and function of assessment in classrooms?

In order to gauge the level of comprehension of the students, assessment can be used. The result of assessment can be a guide in order to plan a more comprehensive and learner’s responsive teaching plan. Assessment is a guide for teachers to better facilitate the advancement of learning experience of the students. It is deem necessary for teachers to inform their students or better to have them monitor their own learning outcomes, I remember one of our teachers back in high school who let us create our own monitoring sheet where we can record all the results of our exams, quarterly grades on recitations and other activities. She devoted the first page of our notebook for our own monitoring sheet so everytime we have our classes, we see our monitoring sheets that serves as guidance for us to excel more on our class. By this, students can also reflect and directly engaged in planning of their learning goals.


Do you consider assessment essential? Why/ Why not?

To better understand the students learning strength and difficulties, a reliable and valid assessment can be maximized. Assessment is essential followed by accurate and appropriate reporting both to students and guardians; this is to promote self regulated learning among students.